# COMSOL Blog

## Optimizing Mach-Zehnder Modulator Designs with COMSOL Software

##### Fanny Littmarck | April 8, 2014

The Mach-Zehnder modulator is a type of optical modulator used for communication applications. To understand how it works and how to optimize its design, you can use the COMSOL simulation software.

### Benchmark Model Results Agree with Fresnel Equations

##### Lexi Carver | March 12, 2014

Have you ever wondered why boaters wear polarized sunglasses? It’s because sunlight reflecting off the water is primarily polarized in one direction, and polarized sunglasses will block this component of the reflected light, thus reducing glare. To understand why this is, we can use COMSOL software. This example solves the governing Maxwell’s equations using the RF Module or Wave Optics Module to simulate light incident at an angle upon a dielectric medium, and the solution shows agreement with analytic solutions.

### Modeling Electromagnetic Waves and Periodic Structures

##### Walter Frei | January 17, 2014

We often want to model an electromagnetic wave (light, microwaves) incident upon periodic structures, such as diffraction gratings, metamaterials, or frequency selective surfaces. This can be done using the RF or Wave Optics modules from the COMSOL product suite. Both modules provide Floquet periodic boundary conditions and periodic ports and compute the reflected and transmitted diffraction orders as a function of incident angles and wavelength. This blog post introduces the concepts behind this type of analysis and walks through the […]

### Gaussian Beam Striking an Array of Nanorods

##### Fanny Littmarck | October 8, 2013

A Gaussian beam that is striking an array of nanorods is an example of optical scattering. Consider metallic nanorods that are very close together and have a diameter much smaller than the wavelength of a Gaussian beam that falls upon them. If the beam were to be polarized along the rods, they would act as though they were not actually individual rods, but a sheet of metal. The array is nearly transparent to the wave when it is polarized perpendicular […]

### A Finite Element Modeling Book Review

##### Walter Frei | August 30, 2013

Recently, I was given a copy of the book Finite Element Modeling Methods for Photonics, by B.M. Azizur Rahman and Arti Agrawal. This book proved to be a good companion to the RF Module and Wave Optics Module for graduate students starting in photonics and new users of COMSOL who would like a very targeted introduction to the field. The website accompanying the book comes with some sample computer codes used by the authors in simulation that readers can use […]