# COMSOL Verification and Validation Models

In accordance with our Quality Policy, COMSOL maintains a library of hundreds of documented model examples that are regularly tested against the latest version of the COMSOL Multiphysics® software, including benchmark problems from ASME and NAFEMS, as well as TEAM problems.

Our Verification and Validation (V&V) test suite provides consistently accurate solutions that are compared against analytical results and established benchmark data. The documented models below are part of the COMSOL Multiphysics® software’s built-in Application Libraries. They include reference values and sources for a wide range of benchmarks, as well as step-by-step instructions to reproduce the expected results on your own computer. You can use these models not only to document your software quality assurance (SQA) and numerical code verification (NCV) efforts, but also as part of an in-house training program.

### Bracket — Structural Mechanics Tutorials

The bracket models are used as an introduction to structural mechanics modeling with the Structural Mechanics Module. The following features are introduced: * The fundamentals: static linear analysis * Parametric study * Including initial strain * Modeling thermal expansion * Adding a ... Read More

### Cable Tutorial Series

In this set of eight tutorial models and associated documentation, you can investigate the resistive, capacitive, inductive, and thermal properties of a standard three-core lead-sheathed XLPE HVAC submarine cable with twisted magnetic armor (500 mm2, 220 kV). The series includes a 2D, ... Read More

### Steady-State 2D Heat Transfer with Conduction

This example shows a 2D steady-state thermal analysis including convection to a prescribed external (ambient) temperature. It is given as a benchmarking example. The benchmark result for the target location is a temperature of 18.25 C. The COMSOL Multiphysics model, using a default mesh ... Read More

### Axisymmetric Transient Heat Transfer

This is a benchmark model for an axisymmetric transient thermal analysis. The temperature on the boundaries changes from 0 degrees C to 1000 degrees C at the start of the simulation. The temperature at 190 s from the anlysis is compared with a NAFEMS benchmark solution. Read More

### Buoyancy Flow of Free Fluids

This model couples the Navier Stokes equations and the heat transfer equations to examine density driven flow of free fluids. Here the fluid is in a square cavity with a heated wall. The buoyancy force is a Boussinesq term added to the Navier-Stokes equations. The equation is ... Read More

### Droplet Breakup in a T-Junction

Emulsions consist of small liquid droplets immersed in an immiscible liquid and widely occur in the production of food, cosmetics, fine chemicals, and pharmaceutical products. The quality of the product is typically dependent on the size of the droplets. Simulating these processes can ... Read More

### Computing Q-Factors and Resonant Frequencies of Cavity Resonators

A classic benchmark example in computational electromagnetics is to find the resonant frequency and Q-factor of a cavity with lossy walls. Here, models of rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical cavities are shown to be in agreement with analytic solutions. Read More

### Helmholtz Resonator with Flow: Interaction of Flow and Acoustics

Helmholtz resonators are used in exhaust systems, as they can attenuate a specific narrow frequency band. The presence of a flow in the system alters the acoustic properties of the resonator and the transmission loss of the subsystem. In this tutorial model, a Helmholtz resonator is ... Read More

### Unsteady 3D Flow Past a Cylinder

This example simulates 3D unsteady laminar flow past a cylinder in a channel. The inflow velocity profile is time-varying. The lift and drag coefficients are computed, and results show good agreement with those published in the literature. Read More

### 1D Isothermal Lithium-Ion Battery

This model demonstrates the Lithium-Ion Battery interface for studying the discharge and charge of a lithium-ion battery for a given set of material properties. The geometry is in one dimension and the model is isothermal. Battery developers can use the model to investigate the influence ... Read More

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